and Accident Investigation
: Aircraft Accident Investigation Commission
= KPPKPU : Komisi Penelitian Penyebab Kecelakaan Pesawat Udara
CVR : Cockpit Voice Recorder
DGAC : Directorate General Air Communications
= DITJEN HUBUD : Direktorat Jenderal Perhubungan Udara
FDR : Flight Data Recorder
ICAO : International Civil Aviation Organization
NTSC : National Transportation Safety Committee
= KNKT : Komisi Nasional Keselamatan Transportasi
POA : Phase of Accident (phases of a flight : taxi, take off, climb,
cruise, approach, descend, landing,
ground, push back, test flight).
PCOA : Probable Cause of Accident (human factor, technical, weather/environment).
Accident Investigation Glossary
The following glossary is taken from ICAO's International Standards and
Recommended Practices, Chapter I. Definitions
Accident. An occurence associated with the operation of an aircraft
which takes place between the time
any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until such
time as all such persons
have disembarked, in which :
a) a person is fatally or seriously injured as a result of :
- being in the aircraft, or
- direct contact with any part of the aircraft, including parts which
have become detached from the aircraft, or
- direct exposure to jet blast.
b) the aircraft sustains damage or structural failure which :
- adversely affects the structural strength, performance or flight characteristics
of the aircraft, and
- would normally require major repair or replacement of the affected component.
except for engine failure or damage, when the damage is limited
to the engine, its cowlings or accessories; or
for damage limited to propellers, wing tips, antennas, tires, brakes,
fairings, small dents or puncture holes in the
aircraft skin; or
c) the aircraft is missing or is completely inaccessible.
Note 1 - For statistical uniformity only, an injury resulting in death
within thirty days of the
date of the accident is classified as a fatal injury by ICAO.
Note 2 - An aircraft is considered to be missing when the official search
has been terminated
and the wreckage has not been located.
Accredited representative. A person designated by a State,
on the basis of his or her qualifications, for the
purpose of participating in an investigation conducted by another State.
Adviser. A person appointed by a State, on the basis of
his or her qualifications, for the purpose of assisting its accredited
representative in an investigation.
Aircraft. Any machine that can derive support in the atmosphere
from the reactions of the air other than the
reactions of the air against the earth's surface.
Causes. Actions, omissions, events, conditions, or a combination
thereof, which led to the accident or incident.
Flight recorder. Any type of recorder installed in the aircraft
for the purpose of complementing accident/
Incident. An occurence, other than an accident, associated
with the operation of an aircraft which affects or
could affect the safety of operation.
Note - The type of incidents which are of main interest to the ICAO
for accident preventing
studies are listed in the ICAO Accident/Incident Reporting Manual.
Investigation. A process conducted for the pupose of accident
prevention which includes the gathering and analysis of information, the
drawing of conclusions, including the determination of causes and, when
appropriate, the making of safety recommendations.
Investigator-In-Charge. A person charged, on the basis of
his or her qualifications, with the responsibility for the organization,
conduct, and control of an investigation.
Note - Nothing in the above definition is intended to preclude the
functions of an investigator-in-charge
being assigned to a commission or other body.
Maximum mass. Maximum certificated take-off mass.
Operator. A person, organization or enterprise engaged in
or offering to engage in aircraft operation.
Preliminary Report. The communication used for the prompt
dissemination of data obtained during the early
stages of the investigation.
Safety recommendation. A proposal of the accident investigation
authority of the State conducting the
investigation, based on information derived from the investigation, made
with the intention of preventing
accidents or incidents.
Serious incident. An incident involving circumstances indicating
that an accident nearly occured.
Note 1 - The difference between an accident and a serious incident lies
only in the result.
Note 2 - Examples of serious incident can be found in Attachment D of
Annex 13 and in the ICAO
Accident/Incident Reporting Manual (Doc 9156).
Serious injury. An injury which is sustained by a person
in an accident and which :
a) requires hospitalization for more than 48 hours, commencing within
seven days from the date of the injury
was received; or
b) results in a fracture of any bone (except simple fractures of fingers,
toes, or nose); or
c) involves lacerations which cause severe haemorrhage, nerve, muscle
or tendon damage; or
d) involves injury to any internal organ; or
e) involves second or third degree burns, or any burns affecting more
than 5 per cent of the body surface; or
f) involves verified exposure to infectious substances or injurious radiation.
State of Design. The State having jurisdiction over the
organization responsible for the type design.
State of Manufacture. The State having jurisdiction over
the organization responsible for the final assembly of
State of Occurence. The State in the territory of which
an accident or incident occurs.
State of the Operator. The State in which the operator's
principal place of business is located or, if there is no
such place of business, the operator's permanent residence.
State of Registry. The State on whose register the aircraft
Note - In the case of the registration of aircraft of an international
operating agency on other than a
national basis, the states constituting the agency are jointly and severally
bound to assume the
obligations which, uner the Chicago Convention, attach to a State of Registry.
See, in this regard, the
Council Resolution of 14 December 1967 on Nationality and Registration
of Aircraft Operated by
International Operating Agencies (Doc 8722).